Gujarati sahitya exam Preparation best meterial
Gujarati literature is literature composed in Gujarati language by people of Gujarati origin living in Gujarat. The history of Gujarati language dates back to about AD.
Can be traced back to the year 1000. The Gujarati language evolved from the dialects spoken in various dialects all over India. Its peculiarity is that literature developed even though it had no refuge from any ruler except its author.
Due to the development of commerce and trade in Gujarat, the dominance of Hinduism and Jainism, and the creation of a safe society by rulers like Maharaj Siddharraj Jaysingh, the Chalukya dynasty (Solanki dynasty) and the Vaghela Rajputs, a great deal of literature was created in the 11th century.
Over time, that literature came into the mainstream and became accepted and popular among the people of Gujarat.
Over time, in Gujarati literature, general rules regarding creations and literary genres were formulated and created. The literature established today is disseminated through literary organizations like Gujarat Vidya Sabha, Gujarati Sahitya Sabha, Gujarat Sahitya Akademi, Gujarati Sahitya Parishad.
The policy of rulers, the way of life of the people and the worldwide influence of society are important for the spread and dissemination of any literature. The language spoken and the literature emanating from it varies over time. Various dialects of Apabhransh language were prevalent in Gujarat and entire North India about a thousand years ago.  It was a form of native Prakrit language spoken by the common people. It is the time between changes in the language of folklore and established literature.  Around 300, Vernacular arrived in primary Gujarati from Apabhramsa. It took about two hundred years for literature to reach that point. 
Ancient literature (up to 150 AD)
Prague-Narasimha era (1000 AD to 150 AD)
Medieval literature (150 AD – 150 AD)
Narasimha era (160 AD to 150 AD)
Era of devotion
Virtuous devotional era
Nirguna bhakti era
Modern literature (150 AD to present)
Reformation Age or Narmada Age (150–17 AD)
Pandit Yuga or Govardhan Yuga (18–1917 AD).
Gandhi era (1917-18)
Anu-Gandhi era (160-17 AD)
Modern era (16-17 AD)
After the modern era (16 AD – present)
Gujarati literature is mainly divided into two broad categories which are prose and poetry. In which the history of the verse is believed to date back to the 6th century. Poetry was the medium of medieval India for religious beliefs and decisions. Based on this, the history of Gujarati literature is mainly divided into three sections; Ancient (up to 150 AD), medieval (150 to 150 AD) and modern (after 150 AD).
However, the greatest influence of Gujarati literature on Gujarati culture is believed to have occurred during the Muzaffar dynasty.
Ancient and medieval literature is divided into Prague Narasimha and Anu Narasimha. Some experts also divide this period into Ras Yuga, Saguna Bhakti Yuga and Nirgun Bhakti Yuga.
Modern literature is divided into Reformation era or Narmada era, Pandit age or Govardhan age, Gandhi era, Anu Gandhi era, Modern age and Anu modern age.
These yugas are divided by time, but from that year the beginning and end of the yuga cannot be considered. With each age coming and ending for some time with the next and preceding ages.
Jain monk and scholar Hemachandracharyasuri was one of the earliest experts in grammar of Prakrit and Apabhramsa languages. During the reign of King Siddharaj Jai Singh of the Chalukya dynasty of Anilwad Patan, he made grammar rules which are the basic principles of the Gujarati language.
These rules formed the basis of distorted grammar of Sanskrit and Ardhamadhi in Gujarati language. He wrote books called Poetry Anushasana for poetry, Siddhim Vardhanushasana for Prakrit and Apabhramsa grammar and Deshanamala for words of local origin.
Historians and researchers unanimously believe that the earliest works in Gujarati literature were composed by Jain writers.  It was in the center as long verses as Raas, Fagu and Villon with themes of heroism, beauty and nature. . Shalibhadrasuri’s Bharateshwar Baahubali Raas (117 AD),  Vijayasena’s Revantagiri Ras (17 AD), Ambadeva’s Samararas (1917 AD) and Vinayaprabha’s Gautama Swamy (18 AD) are excellent examples.
Thus, Jain monks have created hundreds of rasas or rasas over a period of two hundred years. The main themes in Rasa were nature descriptions, erotic seasons, Jain Acharyas and Tirthankaras, the characters of historical characters. A large collection of Ras is available today in Jain manuscripts in manuscript form in Patan, Jaisalmer, Ahmedabad and Khambhat.  Fagu is a poem that depicts the time of ecstasy and joyful spring.
It is part of the works of Jain monks but does not focus on religion. Rajasekhar’s Neminath Fagu (16 AD) and unknown creator Vasant Vilas (160 AD) are best examples of this.
Vasant Vilas has a composition called Fagu with eighty-four links and a similar style.
Thus, due to the same style of the two works, it is likely to be the work of the same creator.  Asit Thackeray is considered the supreme creator among non-Jain poets.
His main composition is Bhavai and he has made around 30 costumes. He is credited with bringing the Natyashastra to Gujarati literature.
The poems of the management include Sridhar’s Ranamalla verses (18 AD), Merutung’s Prabhachintamani, Padmanabha’s Kanhadde Prabandha (17 AD) and Bhima’s Sadayavatsakit (1810 AD). Abdur Rahman, the creator of Sandeshkarsh, is considered the first Muslim producer of Gujarati literature.
The earliest example of a perennial type of verse is Vinayachandra’s Neminath Chatushpadika (1140 AD).  Some prose has also been composed in this era.
The main topics in these works were grammar, commentary and religion. The earliest example of this is considered to be Balavabodh of Tarunprabhasuri (17 AD) in which sermons have been made the central theme.
Manikyasundara’s prose on the subject of religious adornment is Prithivchand Charit’s best example of ancient Gujarati and its style is similar to Banabhatta’s novel.
In addition, Somasundara (19) and Mugdhabodh Hrithik (19) are notable compositions. Due to the fruitful trade and commerce in Ahmedabad and Khambhat, recreational activities started in these centers and literature, gaining a new momentum due to Jain monks, storytellers, bhavai and puppet shows.